Monday, November 30, 2015

19 Kislev: Yahrtzeit of the Maggid of Mezeritch



Based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, “Chassidic Masters,” Chapter 4, and “Until the Mashiach.”

This year “Yud-Tes Kislev,” the yahrtzeit of Rabbi Dov Ber ben Avraham (1704-1772), better known as the Maggid of Mezeritch, falls on Monday night, November 30, through Tuesday, Dec. 1.

On the yahrtzeit of a tzaddik, it  is customary to light a 24-hour candle, give a few coins to tzedakah and learn something from the tzaddik’s teachings or tell a story or two about him. We will provide a few translations from this great and awesome Chassidic master’s teachings in a separate posting.

According to tradition, the Maggid of Mezeritch was a leading student of the celebrated Talmudist known as the “Pnei Yehoshua” (Rabbi Yehoshua Falk, 1680-1756) in Lemberg (Lvov), at whose behest he later traveled to the Baal Shem Tov in search of a cure for his lameness. The Maggid was already a master of the Kabbalah by this time—but upon encountering the Baal Shem Tov, that mastery was forever transformed from intellectual knowledge to the most profound experiential knowledge of these mysteries.

After the Baal Shem Tov’s passing in 1760, some eight years later, the Maggid emerged as the unique disciple who would succeed in transmitting the Master’s teachings to a core of elite students, who in turn disseminated them throughout the Jewish world. Several collections of the Maggid’s oral teachings were published after the latter’s death by his disciples. These included Likutey Amarim (1780); Likutim Yekarim (1792); Maggid Devarav LeYaakov (1792); Ohr HaEmes (1799); and Ohr Torah (1804).

Although Rebbe Nachman was not a disciple of the Maggid of Mezeritch (his formative years having been spent in the family circle of the Baal Shem Tov), he nevertheless had the highest praise for him. Reb Noson writes that once a group of people were discussing the greatness of the tzaddikim. One mentioned the testimony of a certain tzaddik that with wherever he set his eyes, the Maggid of Mezeritch could see all “Seven Shepherds” (i.e., Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, Joseph, and David). Rebbe Nachman commented, “About the holy Maggid, one may believe everything.” Reb Noson adds that the Rebbe spoke many other praises of the Maggid and his inner circle of followers (Chayei Moharan #553).

Another great event that took place on Yud-Tes Kislev was the release of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of the Chabad school of Chassidism, from the Czar’s prison. This liberation is still celebrated all over the world by the Chabad-Lubavitch movement.

In this connection, there is an interesting observation from Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in his biography of Rebbe Nachman, “Until the Mashiach” (Breslov Research Institute), p. 40. In describing Rebbe Nachman’s journey to Israel, he writes:

“Thursday, 24 Tishrei 5559 (October 4, 1798):  The day after the holiday [of Shemini Atzeres-Simchas Torah] the Rebbe wanted to return home immediately. His attendent, however, again refused to go, since he wanted to visit Tiberias. The Rebbe agreed (Shivchey HaRan).

On this day, Rabbi Shneur Zalman was taken to prison. He had been denounced to the Prosecutor-General in S. Petersburg as a political agitator (Tanya, Toldos Rabbenu HaZaken, p. 207; HaTamim, 214a). [Rabbi Kaplan adds:] This might have been why the Rebbe was so brokenhearted [during the preceding holy days].”

The “coincidence” of these events—Rebbe Nachman’s mysterious grief and the accusation and then arrest of the Baal HaTanya—is remarkable.

Upon his return to Russia from his momentous journey to the Holy Land, Rebbe Nachman went straight to the Baal HaTanya in Liozna, attempting (unfortunately, without success) to make peace between him and Rabbi Avraham Kalisker in Eretz Yisrael. And when the Baal HaTanya later traveled through the Ukraine on his way to meet with Rabbi Baruch of Medzhibuzh, he stopped to spend Shabbos Yisro with Rebbe Nachman in Breslov (“Until the Mashiach,” pp. 178-179)—but that’s another story…

Zekhusam yagein aleinu! 

Friday, November 27, 2015

What is the “Self?”

Photo (c) Dovid Sears 2011

Some Speculations by Dovid Sears

In the Introduction to the Tikuney Zohar, the Prophet Elijah describes how the various sefiros (Divine powers) correspond to the human form (“chesed / kindness is the right arm, gevurah / might is the left arm,” etc.), and then states that nevertheless G-d transcends them all, as well as all Divine Names: “There is none who can know You at all… Each sefirah has a specific Name… However, You have no specific Name, for You permeate all Names, and you are the perfection of the all (‘shelimu de-khulhu,’ in Aramaic)…” The Tikuney Zohar concludes that all powers and emanations, and all Divine Names, are related to the world and therefore limited, while the Divine Essence is indescribable and beyond all limitation entirely. (Also see a similar teaching from the Baal Shem Tov cited in Ohr ha-Meir, Shoftim, that G-d’s “true greatness” transcends His Essential Name [YHVH], which exists only for the sake of creation.)

This may be related to a cryptic statement of the Rebbe preserved in Reb Avraham b’Reb Nachman’s Chokhmah u-Binah (printed in Kokhvey Ohr and Siach Sarfey Kodesh I, 413): “Ich hobb shum nomen nisht—I have no name whatever.”

That is, just as Hashem transcends all Names and Divine manifestations, so does the tzaddik transcend his own “personality” and presence in the world. The essence of being remains unmanifest and nameless.

The Rebbe also teaches that “the name is the self.” Thus, mesirus nefesh, which is usually understood to mean martyrdom or self-sacrifice, also may denote the defamation of one’s name (Likutey Moharan I, 260). Since the name is the “self,” it may be subject to defamation—or its opposite, glorification or adulation.

In Likutey Moharan I, 52 (“Ha-nei’or ba-Laylah”), the Rebbe outlines the path of hisbodedus and the spiritual realization or breakthrough that is its goal. He explains that in truth, everything proceeds from and is nullified within the Mechuyav ha-Metziyus (“Imperative Existent,” a term borrowed from Maimonides, meaning “Absolute Reality,” or the indestructible essence of being”—which is Divinity). In his recent collection of chiddushim and bi’urim on Likutey Moharan, “Mayim Amukim” (ad loc.), Rabbi Shmuel Moshe Kramer of Yerushalayim equates this with the mystical experience often related to the verse “Ein ode milvado” (Deut. 4:35, according to the interpretation of Shnei Luchos ha-Bris and the Maharal of Prague; also cf. Chullin 7b, Nefesh ha-Chaim III, 12-13, and elsewhere)—that is, despite all appearances, nothing but Godliness truly exists. On that higher plane, what names may we invoke? Who and what are we to invoke them at all?

Also in the above-mentioned Torah 260, the Rebbe describes the souls of Israel as “chelkey ha-Shekhinah / portions of the Divine Presence,” and individually with the phrase “chelek HaVaYaH (YHVH) mi-ma’al mamash … an actual portion of Divinity above” (which interestingly is also the language of the Tanya, as based on the 17th century kabbalistic work, Shefa Tal). This seems to be a mystical reading of the verse from Deuteronomy, “chelek HaVaYaH (YHVH) amo… the portion of Hashem (YHVH) is his people…” If so, this “actual portion of G-dliness above” is who we really are, collectively and individually.

In Likutey Moharan II, 82, the Rebbe cites the retort of Moshe to the rebellious Israelites in the wilderness, “Vi-nachnu mah—and what are we?” The Rebbe interprets this as an expression of “no-ego,” no “self” to impose on others, or to defend from insult or opposition. (And he recommends this model to us all when we are faced with opposition and conflict.) Thus, the concept of a solid or fixed self is negated.

Elsewhere, the Rebbe describes both the tzaddik and the Jewish people as personifying the Divine Name (Likutey Moharan II, 66, 67). For as Chazal state, “Hashem meshutaf bi-shmeinu … G-d’s Name is bound up with our names” (Rashi on Numbers 26:5). Given this principle, it would seem that our names are somewhat provisional. And as the Tikuney Zohar observes, from the Divine perspective, Hashem transcends all Names.

Yet another relevant source is Sichos ha-Ran 40, a Chanukah teaching that I once translated for this website as “The Wheel of Transformation.” There, the Rebbe describes the Holy Temple as being like the dreidel or toy top which children spin on Chanukah, because it embodies the principle that everything in creation is constantly changing, and nothing retains any permanent existence. (See that teaching for how these symbols specifically connect.)

Toward the end of that teaching, the Rebbe mentions that the prima materia (“hyle”), which is the “nothingness” from whence all creation in all of its diversity comes forth, is called “chokhmah.” As in other kabbalistic works, he parses chokhmah as  koach-mah, the “power of nothingness?” This is the same concept as found in Torah II, 82, cited above, and Moshe’s rhetorical question, “Vi-nachnu mah? What are we?” (Meaning: “We are nothing.”)

Therefore, the Big Question is: what is the “self?”

And the person to whom this question expressly must be addressed is oneself—whoever that may be!

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Breslov Retreat: A Shabbat of Inspiration and Connection


From Breslov.org:
Join us Thanksgiving weekend, Nov. 27-29, for an exciting Breslov Shabbaton, at the scenic SSJEC Retreat Center in Fallsburg, NY.

The program features:
 
  • Inspiring lectures by Breslov Campus teachers, Chaim Kramer and Yehudis Golshevski, as well as other great teachers
  • Joyful Breslov davening
  • Delectable food 
  • Relax at the heated indoor swimming pool and recreation room
  • A special musical Melaveh Malka with Yehudis Golshevski for women
And much more.
 

Thursday, November 5, 2015

Rav Kenig Visits Monsey Breslov Yeshiva




Rav Elazar Kenig, Manhig of the Breslov community of Tsfat, shlit”a, recently visited the Breslov Mesivta Ha-Bachurim in Monsey. The Rav gave words of encouragement and awakening from the holy teachings of Rebbe Nachman, and expressed his enthusiam for the holiness and diligence in Torah study he saw in the yeshiva, which maintains strong bonds with the Breslov Gedolim in Eretz Yisrael (Rav Yaakov Meir Schechter, shlit”a, in particular). 

Rav Kenig stressed that the study of Gemara with Rashi and Tosefos is central to the spiritual path laid out by the Rebbe, and that it is a Kiddush Hashem to devote ourselves to “davening and learning and davening.” This is the main way to receive the light that the Rebbe wishes to transmit to us through his wondrous teachings. 

He also had high words of praise for the dedication and accomplishments of the yeshiva’s hanholah: the Geonim Rabbi Yosef Dovid Meilish, Rabbi Chaim Ber Sherrer, Rabbi Yitzchok Meir Miller, and Rabbi Yoel Shpitz, and gave his warm blessings to the yeshiva and everyone associated with it. 

Rav Kenig will spend this coming Shabbos in Montreal, returning to Monsey next week. It is not yet clear how long he will be staying here before returning to Eretz Yisrael.

Monday, November 2, 2015

Living like Sarah


From Reb Noson’s Likutey Halakhos, Hilkhos Tefillin 5:28
Translated by Dovid Sears

“And the life of Sarah was one hundred years, and twenty years, and seven years – [these were] the years of Sarah’s life” (Genesis 23:1). Our sages interpret this to mean that when Sarah was one hundred years old, she was like twenty [regarding innocence of sin]; and when she was twenty years old, she was like seven [regarding beauty] (Bereishis Rabbah 58:1, as cited by Rashi, ad loc.).  

For this is the the gist of attaining wholeness (sheleimus): one should begin to live again in every moment. Even when one reaches old age, it should be in one’s own sight as if he were entirely newborn, as if he had not yet begun to live and to serve G-d. One should always begin anew to live the life of divine service.


This is the paradigm of “when she was one hundred years old, she was like twenty, and when she was twenty years old, she was like seven” [and] “These were the years of Sarah’s life”—they were all equally good. For the older a tzaddik becomes, he still remains like an infant in his own sight, as if he were still a child. In this way, he contantly increases his divine service and merits to attain long life in truth. All of his days and years are years of true life, because he doesn’t lose a single day of his life without increasing in holiness and vitality. This is the meaning of the years of Sarah’s life were equally good, which is the aspect of long life.